Agujero de la capa de ozono es el más grande y profundo de los últimos años

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El agujero de la capa de ozono sobre la Antártida es uno de los más grandes y profundos de los últimos años, dijo hoy la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM).

La capa de ozono ofrece una protección a las especies vivas del planeta contra los efectos dañinos de los rayos ultravioletas (UV) procedentes del sol.

«Entre los riesgos de los rayos UV están el cáncer de la piel y las cataratas. Muchos servicios meteorológicos nacionales emiten advertencias sobre los rayos ultravioletas y es muy importante que se les preste atención», señaló a Efe la portavoz de la OMM, Clare Nullis.

La advertencia es ahora especialmente oportuna para América Latina y el resto de regiones en el hemisferio sur, «donde la gente debe seguir los consejos y protegerse del sol», agregó.

Este año el agujero que se forma con una frecuencia anual creció muy rápido desde mediados de agosto y alcanzó su mayor dimensión, de 24 millones de kilómetros cuadrados, a principio de ese mes, según confirmó también el Servicio de Monitoreo Atmosférico Copernico de la Unión Europea.

A día de hoy cubre 23 millones de kilómetros cuadrados, un tamaño que está por encima de la media de la última década, comentó Nullis.

El agujero de la capa de ozono cubre así prácticamente la totalidad del continente antártico y los científicos creen que ha alcanzado su máxima extensión de este año.

La capa de ozono se comporta de forma muy variable de año en año: en 2019 el agujero fue inusualmente pequeño, mientras que el año anterior fue bastante grande, prácticamente como el que se ha formado ahora.

Nullis dijo que estas variaciones confirman que no puede haber tregua en los esfuerzos por terminar con el uso de químicos que destruyen la capa de ozono -en particular los halocarburos-y que están prohibidos por una convención internacional.

De ese tipo de químicos, los fluorocarburos, clorocarburos y clorofluorocarburos (CFC) son los de uso más extendido y a la vez son los más dañinos para la capa de ozono. Se les puede encontrar en extintores, refrigerantes, propelentes y disolventes.

Los CFC están presentes en las neveras o refrigeradoras, pero desde hace algunos años los aparatos nuevos están exentos de estos químicos.

Desde que los halocarburos se prohibieron, la capa de ozono comenzó a recuperarse lentamente y su agujero a ser más y más pequeño, a pesar del inmenso tamaño que todavía alcanza.

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